- How to Hide data (Steganography) into image file - OutGuess

OutGuess is a universal steganographic tool that allows the insertion of hidden information into the redundant bits of data sources. The nature of the data source is irrelevant to the core of OutGuess. The program relies on data specific handlers that will extract redundant bits and write them back after modification. In this version the PNM and JPEG image formats are supported.

This process will allow us to store information of any kind within an image. This can be useful if you intend to send confidential information (such as a text document or a spreadsheet) to a person and do not want such information to be intercepted by someone else (such as the mail provider, a spy, police, etc. ..) We will use the technique of steganography to hide information within the image.

OutGuess Installation:
Ubuntu user can install OutGuess using Synaptic package manager or can install using command:
sudo apt-get install outguess

Data Embedding using OutGues:
Now here is how you do it: you need a text file (in this example we call it "hidden.txt" ) and a picture ( we call it "input.jpg" ) after that you issue the following command to hide your data ("hidden.txt") into the image file.

$ outguess -k "my_passwd" -d hidden.txt input.jpg out.jpg
Reading input.jpg....
JPEG compression quality set to 75
Extracting usable bits:   43283 bits
Correctable message size: 24627 bits, 56.90%
Encoded 'hidden.txt': 1128 bits, 141 bytes
Finding best embedding...
    0:   587(50.6%)[52.0%], bias    68(0.12), saved:    -2, total:  1.36%
   15:   550(47.4%)[48.8%], bias    73(0.13), saved:     1, total:  1.27%
   41:   585(50.4%)[51.9%], bias    32(0.05), saved:    -2, total:  1.35%
  198:   540(46.6%)[47.9%], bias    50(0.09), saved:     3, total:  1.25%
198, 590: Embedding data: 1128 in 43283
Bits embedded: 1160, changed: 540(46.6%)[47.9%], bias: 50, tot: 43059, skip: 41899
Foiling statistics: corrections: 174, failed: 187, offset: 158.255556 +- 316.069419
Total bits changed: 590 (change 540 + bias 50)
Storing bitmap into data...
Writing out.jpg....

Data Retrieval
You can retrieve data from an image in the following way:
$ outguess -k "my_passwd" -r out.jpg hidden.txt
Reading out.jpg....
Extracting usable bits:   43283 bits
Steg retrieve: seed: 198, len: 141


- Enable Surround Sound system (5:1) in Ubuntu

To enable 5:1 surround sound system for your Ubuntu, go to terminal and open the file (/etc/pulse/daemon.conf) using your editor and change the line:

$ sudo gedit /etc/pulse/daemon.conf
; default-sample-channels = 2

to say

default-sample-channels = 6

After you reboot, test your sound using: speaker-test -Dplug:surround51 -c6 -l1 -twav


- How to block flash videos using Squid proxy Server

A popular request is to block certain content types from being served to clients. Squid currently can not do "content inspection" to decide on the file type based on the contents, but it is able to block HTTP replies based on the servers' content MIME Type reply.

The MIME Type reply is generally set correctly so browsers are able to pass the reply to the correct module (image, text, html, flash, music, mpeg, etc.)

One popular example is to block flash video, used by sites such as Youtube.
The MIME type for such content is "video/x-flv". Creating an ACL to block this is easy.

First, create an ACL which matches the MIME type in question:
acl deny_rep_mime_flashvideo rep_mime_type video/x-flv
Then create a HTTP Reply ACL which denies any replies with that MIME type:
http_reply_access deny deny_rep_mime_flashvideo
This has been verified to block Youtube flash video content.

If the content is blocked the following similar line will be seen in access.log:

1282485682.146    903 TCP_DENIED_REPLY/403 3143 GET http://tc.v15.cache3.c.youtube.com/videoplayback? - DIRECT/ text/html

And on browser, you can see ...


- Graphical tool to Download and Convert YouTube Videos - CaC

CaC (Catch and Converter) is a simple graphical program that converts videos from Videosites like Youtube, Google Videos, etc .. It's pretty simple to use, just copy the link of the video to download, choose the place for download and the output format.

For most profiles to work, it is necessary to have the unstripped version of the libavcodec in the multiverse repository, which can be obtained by installing ubuntu-restricted-extras or kubuntu-restricted-extras or xubuntu-restricted-extras as suggested by this package.

Download and Install CaC: 
Ubuntu user can download CaC from here and can install it using your package manager.
Once installed, you can find it in Applications> Sound & Video> CaC - Catch and Convert.


- Monitor bandwidth consumption per process - NetHogs

NetHogs is a small 'net top' tool. Instead of breaking the traffic down per protocol or per subnet, like most tools do, it groups bandwidth by process. NetHogs does not rely on a special kernel module to be loaded. If there's suddenly a lot of network traffic, you can fire up NetHogs and immediately see which PID is causing this. This makes it easy to indentify programs that have gone wild and are suddenly taking up your bandwidth.

NetHogs Installation:
Fedora user can install NetHogs using command: yum install nethogs
Ubuntu user can install NetHogs using command: sudo apt-get install nethogs

Using NetHogs:
The default device to monitor is eth0. If you wish to use other device, simply type the argument after nethog, open the terminal and run the following command: nethogs eth0

When nethogs is running, press:
 q: quit
 m: switch between total and kb/s mode

usage: nethogs [-V] [-b] [-d seconds] [-t] [-p] [device [device [device ...]]]
-V : prints version.
-d : delay for update refresh rate in seconds. default is 1.
-t : tracemode.
-b : bughunt mode - implies tracemode.
-p : sniff in promiscious mode (not recommended).


- What does Ubuntu means?

Ubuntu is a South African ethical ideology focusing on people's allegiances and relations with each other. The word comes from the Zulu and Xhosa languages. Ubuntu is seen as a traditional African concept, is regarded as one of the founding principles of the new republic of South Africa and is connected to the idea of an African Renaissance.

A rough translation of the principle of Ubuntu is "humanity towards others". Another translation could be: "The belief in a universal bond of sharing that connects all humanity".
"A person with ubuntu is open and available to others, affirming of others, does not feel threatened that others are able and good, for he or she has a proper self-assurance that comes from knowing that he or she belongs in a greater whole and is diminished when others are humiliated or diminished, when others are tortured or oppressed."
 -- Archbishop Desmond Tutu

As a platform based on Free software, the Ubuntu operating system brings the spirit of ubuntu to the software world.

The Ubuntu project is entirely committed to the principles of free software development; people are encouraged to use free software, improve it,and pass it on.

"Free software" doesn't mean that you shouldn't have to pay for it (although Ubuntu is committed to being free of charge as well). It means that you should be able to use the software in any way you wish: the code that makes up free software is available for anyone to download, change, fix, and use in any way. Alongside ideological benefits, this freedom also has technical advantages: when programs are developed, the hard work of others can be used and built upon. With non-free software, this cannot happen and when programs are developed, they have to start from scratch. For this reason the development of free software is fast, efficient and exciting!

You can find out more about free software and the ideological and technical philosophy behind it at the GNU website.


- What is VPS Web Hosting & Who Will Benefit From It?

Virtual Private Server (VPS) web hosting is a form of hosting where a single server is divided in such that each partition is able to work like a dedicated server.  It's fundamentally a combination of        shared and dedicated hosting.  This makes it a great alternative to the two extremes in which you get an abundant amount of independent resources that shared hosting cannot provide, but at a fraction of the cost of having a fully dedicated server.

With the technology of virtual software enabling the creation of virtual private servers, each VPS can independently have its own operating system, and resources like RAM and disk space; with few shared aspects as CPU.  This makes a VPS ideal for website owners who need the extra, more reliable resources that can handle things such as site expansion, high traffic to their blog, e-commerce and so on, without having to make constant upgrades.  Moreover, VPS hosting would be very ideal for business owners who want complete control over their site with the provided independent operating system that gives extensive administrative rights to the user.

Even more benefits of VPS web hosting include:

Email Server
You have your access to your own email server that handles only email from your domain, which gives you more control, increased performance and provides additional security.  In addition, since the email will be coming from your own unique IP address, it also helps ensure proper delivery.

Root/SSH Access
With a VPS you get “server-level customization,” which was previously only available with dedicated hosting due to security reasons.  In addition, you can utilize the command line access and have the option of operating as the root user if you've got the experience to do so.

Burstable Memory for Unpredictable Usage Spikes
If your goal is to gain more traffic to your website, then you should definitely be prepared for it.  Let's say that the popularity of your blog is on the rise.  In addition, links to your website are added to larger ones like Digg or Slashdot.  On a shared server, this can become a major disaster that can quickly cripple your website.  But on a VPS, this wouldn't be much of a problem with the availability of “burstable memory,” which is a  pool of reserved memory that's available when needed, such as in times of very high traffic.

With a VPS from a good hosting company, you should have full control over the firewall and can customize it to fit your needs. You dictate what services are accessible by what IP addresses. For example, you can restrict access to sensitive areas (such as the control panel) to specific IP addresses, so that only someone in your office can get access to these areas.

VPS hosting offers many advantages such as greater control, a higher level of security, and superior performance for high traffic and resource-intensive websites. It's a great option for small and medium-sized businesses or popular bloggers, and provides excellent value on a modest budget.


- How to block Messenger (Yahoo, Trillian, Skype , MSN , ICQ, Gizmo, AOL) using squid

AOL Instant Messenger (AIM)
Note: AOL are known to change their Server IPs. The list below cannot be confirmed.
acl aol dst
acl aol dst
http_access deny aol
Gizmo Project:
Gizmo Project include software to connect to a wide range of messaging protocols and VoIP services.
# Gizmo Project
acl gizmo dstdomain .gizmoproject.com
# Gizmo VoIP
acl gizmo dstdomain .talqer.com .gizmocall.com .fring.com
# Gizmo Chat
acl gizmo dstdomain .pidgin.im
http_access deny gizmo
ICQ ("I Seek You")
acl icq dstdomain .icq.com
http_access deny icq
MSN Messenger and Windows Live Messenger
# MSN Messenger
acl msn urlpath_regex -i gateway.dll
acl msnd dstdomain messenger.msn.com gateway.messenger.hotmail.com
acl msn1 req_mime_type application/x-msn-messenger

http_access deny msnd
http_access deny msn
http_access deny msn1
# Skype
acl numeric_IPs dstdom_regex ^(([0-9]+\.[0-9]+\.[0-9]+\.[0-9]+)|(\[([0-9af]+)?:([0-9af:]+)?:([0-9af]+)?\])):443
acl Skype_UA browser ^skype^

http_access deny numeric_IPS
http_access deny Skype_UA
Note: Recent releases of Skype have been evading the above restriction by not sending their User-Agent headers and using domain names. The following can be used to catch those installs, but be aware it will likely also catch other agents.
acl validUserAgent browser \S+
http_access deny !validUserAgent
# Trillian
acl trillian dst
http_access deny trillian
Yahoo! Messenger
# Yahoo! Messenger
acl ym dstdomain .messenger.yahoo.com .psq.yahoo.com
acl ym dstdomain .us.il.yimg.com .msg.yahoo.com .pager.yahoo.com
acl ym dstdomain .rareedge.com .ytunnelpro.com .chat.yahoo.com
acl ym dstdomain .voice.yahoo.com

acl ymregex url_regex yupdater.yim ymsgr myspaceim

# Other protocols Yahoo!Messenger uses ??
acl ym dstdomain .skype.com .imvu.com

http_access deny ym
http_access deny ymregex


- Various Linux Distro Stickers

Contains powered by stickers for following Linux distro ..

 - Arch Linux
 - Ubuntu
 - Debian
 - openSuSe
 - Linux Mint
 - CentOS
 - Mandriva
 - Kubuntu
 - Fedora
 - Gentoo
 - Puppy Linux
 - XUbuntu

Download stickers here


- Detecting Rootkits in Ubuntu system using Chkrootkit and Rkhunter

A rootkit is a program or set of programs used by an intruder to both hide their presence on a computer system and allow future access to that same system. A rootkit will usually either manipulate the data set the operating system relies on, or alter the execution flow of the operating system.

It is important you realize that rootkits are designed to be very stealth, meaning they are difficult to find or detect by normal means. Many rootkits have been so well written that their presence can go undetected for years. They are written by experienced individuals with an advanced level of programming knowledge far above that of the average virus or malware writer. A rootkit is not an exploit. It is what an attacker uses after an initial exploit to allow future undetected access to a compromised computer.

chkrootkit is a tool to locally check for signs of a rootkit. It contains a chkrootkit: shell script that checks system binaries for rootkit modification.

Open up the terminal and type the following command to install chkrootkit:
$ sudo apt-get install chkrootkit

Using chkrootkit:
Open up the terminal and type the command: $ sudo chkrootkit
This will perform all tests

Other Configurations:
If you want an automatic daily run of chkrootkit:
Open /etc/chkrootkit.conf and Replace RUN_DAILY="false" by RUN_DAILY="true"

If you also want a daily mailed report :
Open /etc/cron.daily/chkrootkit and replace '$CHKROOTKIT $RUN_DAILY_OPTS' by
'$CHKROOTKIT $RUN_DAILY_OPTS | mail -s '"\"Daily chkrootkit run from $HOSTNAME \"$YOUR_EMAIL_ADDRESS"'

Rootkit Hunter scans files and systems for known and unknown rootkits, backdoors, sniffers, and malware. The application consists of the main shell script, a few text-based databases, and optional Perl scripts. It can recognise and run external applications like 'skdet' and 'unhide'. It should run on almost every Unix clone.

Open up the terminal and type the following command to install Rkhunter:
$ sudo apt-get install Rkhunter

Using Rkhunter:
Open up the terminal and type the command: $ sudo rkhunter --check
This will perform all tests

By default, the log file '/var/log/rkhunter.log' will be created. It will contain the results of the checks made by Rkhunter

The following command option causes rkhunter to check and download the later version of any of its text data files: $ sudo rkhunter --update

To see what other options can be used with rkhunter, enter: $ sudo rkhunter --help


- How to perform sha256sum check on Ubuntu Linux

The program sha256sum is designed to verify data integrity using the SHA-256 (SHA-2 family with a digest length of 256 bits). SHA-256 hashes used properly can confirm both file integrity and authenticity.

Comparing hashes makes it possible to detect changes in files that would cause errors. The possibility of changes (errors) is proportional to the size of the file; the possibility of errors increase as the file becomes larger. It is a very good idea to run an SHA-256 hash comparison check when you have a file like an operating system install CD that has to be 100% correct.

Most Linux distributions come with the sha256sum utility (on Ubuntu it is part of the coreutils package). We are going to use the OpenSuSe 11.3 ISO file for the following example:

Check the iso file
First open a terminal and go to the correct directory to check a downloaded iso file:
Then run the following command from within the download directory.

sha256sum Linux.iso
sha256sum should then print out a single line after calculating the hash:

35ad366043bd80bbf5dcab5089f46a3efd142fd132b4423343f716ae0177fd86  Linux.iso

Compare the hash (the alphanumeric string on left) that your machine calculated with the corresponding hash in the SHA256SUMS file.

When both hashes match exactly then the downloaded file is almost certainly intact. If the hashes do not match, then there was a problem with either the download or a problem with the server. You should download the file again from either the same mirror, or from a different mirror if you suspect a server error.

Check here to know how to perform md5 checksum.


- Utility to recover deleted files from an ext3 or ext4 Linux partition - Extundelete

Extundelete is a utility that can recover deleted files from an ext3 or ext4 partition. The ext3 file system is the most common file system when using Linux, and ext4 is its successor. extundelete uses the information stored in the partition's journal to attempt to recover a file that has been deleted from the partition. There is no guarantee that any particular file will be able to be undeleted, so always try to have a good backup system in place, or at least put one in place after recovering your files!

Download and Install Extundelete:
Download the latest version of Extundelete - here

To compile and install Extundelete, you should first install the binary and development packages for e2fsprogs and e2fslibs.  You must also have a C++ compiler and a make utility to compile extundelete.
Go to terminal and type following command to install Extundelete:

tar -xjf extundelete-0.2.0.tar.bz2
cd extundelete-0.2.0

The extundelete program may be run as-is from the build directory, or you may wish to install it to a directory that is shared with other executable programs, which you may do by running the following command: make install

Assume you have deleted a file called /home/user/an/important/file. Also assume the output of the 'mount' command shows this line (among others):

/dev/sda3 on /home type ext3 (rw)

This line shows that the /home directory is on the partition named /dev/sda3, so then run: 
umount /dev/sda3 and check that it is now unmounted by running the mount command again and seeing it is not listed.Now, with this information, run extundelete:
# extundelete /dev/sda3 --restore-file user/an/important/file

If you have deleted the directory 'important', you can run: 
# extundelete /dev/sda3 --restore-directory user/an/important

Or if you have deleted everything, you can run: 
# extundelete /dev/sda3 --restore-all


- Converts many CD-ROM image (BIN, MDF, PDI, CDI, NRG, and B5I) formats to ISO9660 - Iat

Iat (Iso9660 Analyzer Tool) is a tool for detecting the structure of many types of CD-ROM image file formats, such as BIN, MDF, PDI, CDI, NRG, and B5I, and  converting them into ISO-9660.

It’s included in the Debian repositories, so install it using apt-get install iat, or install it using the synaptic software management tool and use it like in the following

Other can compile and install the iat package, open up the terminal and type following command:

wget http://www.ohloh.net/p/iat/download?filename=iat-0.1.7.tar.bz2
bunzip2 iat-0.1.7.tar.bz2
cd iat
./configure && make && sudo make install

Using iat:
Convert MDF-image to ISO9660: iat my_image.mdf my_new_image.iso
Convert NGR to ISO9660: iat cd_image.nrg cd_image.iso
Convert BIN-image to ISO9660: iat my_image.bin > my_new_image.iso

Write CD directly from MDF-format: iat my_image.mdf | cdrecord


- Text Encryption utility using the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) - Furius Cipher

Furius Cipher is a simple text encryption utility using the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).

Here are some key features of "Furius Cipher":
 * US Government standard text encryption.
 * Supports UTF8 character encoding.
 * Text can be loaded from and saved to files.

Ubuntu Users can download the deb file from here, double click the download .deb file to install.

Create a launcher for Gnome user:
 * Right-click on the gnome panel (the taskbar at the top of the screen) and choose “Add to Panel
 * Select “Custom Application Launcher” and fill in these values:

Type: Application
Name: Furius Cipher
Command: furiuscipher

 * You can also select an icon to use with the launcher.
 * Click “OK” to save the changes

Click the new launcher to start.

Other Users can Compile from the source file furiuscipher-1.0.0.tar.gz
 * wget http://www.marcus-furius.com/files/FuriusCipher/furiuscipher-1.0.0.tar.gz
 * tar xzvf furiuscipher-1.0.0.tar.gz
 * cd furiuscipher-1.0.0
 * ./configure
 * make
 * su -c "make install"


- Utility for creating installers. DEB - Ubucompilator

Ubucompilator is a very simply tool to compile a software by the source code and make a .deb package. Ubucompilator is designed for debian's distro derivates. Ubucompilator is the substitute in the compilation process of software of the terminal. After the software's compilation, you can create a .deb package for install the software just compiled in your ubuntu's (linux mint, debian and relative derivates). Ubucompilator is a free software released undere GNU GPL v3.

Ubucompilator Features:
 * Compile  software
 * Create .deb packages
 * Unpack the source code by the unziptool

Ubucompilator Installation:
Download the Ubucompilator deb file.
Install Ubucompilator with a double click on the icon or install ubucompilator using command:
sudo dpkg -i ubucompilator_0.1.2-1_all.deb
After successful installation you can find the Ubucompilator under Application > Others

How to compile and install the software from source code using command line - check here


- GNOME Theme Manager for Ubuntu Linux - Epidermis

Epidermis changes the appearance of your GNOME desktop in all its aspects in one click. Epidermis 'skins' change the appearance of your desktop wallpaper, Metacity windows border theme, your GTK+ controls theme, your icon theme, your mouse cursor theme, your GRUB bootsplash screen and your GDM login screen theme. Each of these customizations are downloaded in 'pigments' which are available from an Epidermis 'repository'.

An Epidermis skin handles the following themes, called pigments:
 * Wallpapers
 * Metacity window border themes
 * GTK widget themes
 * Icon sets
 * GNOME splash images
 * Mouse cursor themes
 * Grub bootsplash screen
 * Usplash bootsplash screen
 * GDM login screen

Download the latest version of epidermis_0.5.2-1_all.deb, double click the downloaded .deb file to install the epidermis, after successful installation you can find epidermis under Application > System Tools


- Retrieve mail from Yahoo!'s webmail service - FetchYahoo

FetchYahoo is a Perl script that downloads mail from a Yahoo! account to a local mail spool. It is meant to replace fetchmail for people using Yahoo! mail since Yahoo!'s POP service is no longer free. It downloads messages to a local mail spool, including all parts and attachments. It then deletes messages unless requested not to. It can also optionally forward messages to a specified email address and repeat with a given interval.

NOTE: Fetchyahoo will only work if you have selected the all-new Yahoo web interface as your default. You can find out how to switch to the new Yahoo here.

Installing and using FetchYahoo:
    * Download the package and uncompress it : tar -xvzf fetchyahoo-x.y.tar.gz
    * cd fetchyahoo-x.y ; chmod a+rx fetchyahoo
    * Edit fetchyahoo
     OR copy fetchyahoorc to /etc/fetchyahoorc or ~/.fetchyahoorc and edit that
     OR just run fetchyahoo from the commandline
         (use --help to see all options).
    * Use your mail client to get mail from your spool or mbox file.

Options specified on the commandline take precedence over options specified in the configuration file, which in turn take precedence over ons hardcoded within the fetchyahoo program file.


- Simple GUI application to manage ISO, IMG, BIN, MDF and NRG Image files - Furius ISO Mount

Furius ISO Mount is a simple Gtk+ Interface to Mount and Manage ISO, IMG, BIN, MDF and NRG Image files without burning to disk.

An ISO, IMG, BIN, MDF and NRG Image management utility.

Furius ISO Mount features:
 * Automatically Mounts ISO, IMG, BIN, MDF and NRG Image Files.
 * Supports the ISO-13346 “UDF” file system specification when using the loop mount option.
 * Automatically creates a mount point in your home directory.
 * Automatically Unmounts the Image files.
 * Automatically removes the mount directory to return your home directory to its previous state.
 * Automatically saves the history of the last 10 images mounted.
 * Mounts multiple images.
 * Burn ISO and IMG Files to optical disk.
 * Generate Md5 and SHA1 checksums.
 * Automatically retrieves any previously unmounted images.
 * Automatically generates a log file of all commands needed to mount and unmount images manually.

Ubunutu user can install Furius ISO Mount using command: sudo apt-get install furiusisomount

Packaman provides a 1-click Install file to install “Furius ISO Mount”.
Click here to download and open with YaST2 package manager to install “Furius ISO Mount” in openSUSE.

After successful installation go to Application > System Tools and click on "Furius ISO Mount" to open up the application


- Utility to Convert any Video to iPod, iPod Touch and iPhone MP4 Compatible Format - Furius iConverter

Furius iConverter is a simple GTK interface provides users with a convenient front-end for converting any FFMpeg-supported video format into iPod/iPhone friendly MP4.

Furius iConverter feature:
 * Easy to use
 * Converts any video
 * No configuration needed
 * Supports drag and drop
 * Supports batch conversion
 * Automatically creates high quality videos for your device
 * Automatically fixes codec errors
 * Automatically detects source video aspect ratio and converts appropriately

Please note:
Some distributions come with  a cut down version of ffmpeg and you may need to compile from source.
For Ubuntu users you can enable the Medibuntu repositories and download a fully working version by issuing the following commands:

sudo wget –output-document=/etc/apt/sources.list.d/medibuntu.list http://www.medibuntu.org/sources.list.d/$(lsb_release -cs).list && sudo apt-get –quiet update && sudo apt-get –yes –quiet –allow-unauthenticated install medibuntu-keyring && sudo apt-get –quiet update
sudo apt-get install ffmpeg libavcodec-extra-52

Ubuntu users:
Download  furiusiconverter_0.1.1.0_all.deb and install by double click on the downloaded .deb file.
You can find Furius iConverter under  Sound & Video


- How to Install / Configure / Use μTorrent Server on Linux system

µTorrent Server is designed for use on computers running Linux and other UNIX-like operating systems. It provides a state-of-the-art implementation of the BitTorrent protocol and a full-featured web-based user interface in a small footprint.

μTorrent server is a daemonizable 32-bit binary of the µTorrent core, built for x86 compatible Linux. It can be managed programmatically via an HTTP API or interactively by using the (included) customized version of the popular uTorrent Web user interface.

µTorrent Server is a full implementation of the official BitTorrent protocol.
Features include:
 * Web-based remote control daemon
 * Multiple simultaneous downloads
 * Configurable bandwidth scheduler
 * Global and per-torrent speed limiting
 * Quick-resumes interrupted transfers
 * Trackerless support (Mainline DHT)

Additionally, µTorrent Server includes a full-featured web-based user interface.

Installation and Configuration of µTorrent Server:
 * Download µTorrent Server for Linux from here.
 * Extract the downloaded package using command:
tar zxvf utorrent-server-3.0-21701.tar.gz
cd bittorrent-server-v3_0/
 * Create µTorrent server configuration file bittorrent-server-v3_0/utserver.conf and put the following settings into this configuration file:
dir_temp_files: temp
preferred_interface: eth0
Starting uTorrent server:
Open up the terminal and type following command to start the µTorrent server:
cd bittorrent-server-v3_0/
This will start the  µTorrent server on port 8080 (default), users can access the µTorrent web client from any browser using URL: http://<µTorrent ip address>:8080/gui


- Configuring Static Network Settings (IP address, netmask, and gateway) in Ubuntu Linux

Static IP Address Assignment
To configure your system to use a static IP address assignment, add the static method to the inet address  statement for the appropriate interface in the file /etc/network/interfaces. The example below assumes you are configuring your first Ethernet interface identified as eth0. Change the address, netmask, and gateway values to meet the requirements of your network.

auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static

By adding an interface configuration as shown above, you can manually enable the interface through the ifup command: sudo ifup eth0

To manually disable the interface, you can use the ifdown command: sudo ifdown eth0

DNS Client Configuration
To configure your system to use DNS for name resolution, add the IP addresses of the DNS servers that are appropriate for your network in the file /etc/resolv.conf. You can also add an optional DNS suffix search-lists to match your network domain names.

Below is an example of a typical configuration of /etc/resolv.conf for a server on the domain "example.com" and using two Google public DNS servers.

search example.com

If you have multiple domains you wish to search, your configuration might look like the following.

search example.com sales.example.com dev.example.com


- How to install RealPlayer on Ubuntu Linux

RealPlayer is a closed source cross-platform media player by RealNetworks that plays a number of multimedia formats including MP3, MPEG-4, QuickTime, Windows Media, and multiple versions of proprietary RealAudio and RealVideo formats.

Note: The .deb package currently available from the RealNetworks site is a 32-bit build of RealPlayer. The .deb file available from the Medibuntu repository will run on 64-bit systems.

Installing RealPlayer:
Add the Medibuntu Repositories, RealPlayer is available through the Medibuntu non-free repository.

The following command will register the Medibuntu repository with your system's Advanced Packaging Tool (APT) and import the Medibuntu keyring. The command should be run in the Terminal (Applications -> Accessories -> Terminal). The command is not release specific - it will determine which version of Ubuntu is running and install the appropriate repositories.

sudo wget http://www.medibuntu.org/sources.list.d/`lsb_release -cs`.list --output-document=/etc/apt/sources.list.d/medibuntu.list
sudo apt-get -q update
sudo apt-get --yes -q --allow-unauthenticated install medibuntu-keyring
sudo apt-get -q update

A line similar to the following will be created in /etc/apt/sources.list.d/medibuntu.list. The entry will reflect the codename of the Ubuntu release you are currently using.

Open the Terminal via Applications > Accessories > Terminal.

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install realplayer

The default installation location is /opt/real/RealPlayer.


- Setting up squid proxy server on Ubuntu (Quick Start Guide)

Squid is an internet proxy server that can be used within a network to distribute an internet connection to all the computers within the network. One central computer is connected to the internet through any means such as dial-up, cable modem, ISDN, DSL, or T1, runs squid, and thus acts as the firewall to the internet. Because it is a proxy, it has the capabilities to log all user actions such as the URLs visited. There are many features that can be configured in squid. This guide is meant to be a quick start guide for those who are eager to get squid working and then configure it from there.

You can also install and configure squid as a cache server on the local individual machine for speeding up your internet access.

Install Squid
Open up the terminal and type the following command to install squid:
sudo apt-get install squid

Squid Configuration
Open the squid.conf file for editing using command:
gksudo gedit /etc/squid/squid.conf

Find the http_port tag, By default it reads
# http_port 3128

This is the default port that Squid will listen on for requests. If you want to change it, uncomment the line and set the correct port. If you want Squid to listen only on one specific NIC, you can also change the IP address – for example :

Next, find the http_access section Uncomment these 2 lines:
acl our_networks src
http_access allow our_networks

NOTE: You'll need to change to match your network. Unless you have a second subnet you can delete

With above change, the basic squid configuration is done, you can now start/stop the squid server using command: sudo /etc/init.d/squid start|restart|stop

Configuring squid Clients
To configure any application including a web browser to use squid, modify the proxy setting with the IP address of the squid server and the port number that you have specified in the squid configuration file (default 3128).

Below example showing the Firefox configuration for using squid proxy server running on ip address and port 3128.


- Recover your deleted jpeg pictures from filesystem or camera memory card - recoverjpeg

Deleted or lost files can usually be recovered from failed or formatted drives and partitions, CD-ROMs and memory cards using the free software available in the Ubuntu repositories. The data is recoverable because the information is not immediately removed from the disk.

Recoverjpeg tries to identify jpeg pictures from a filesystem image. To achieve this goal, it scans the filesystem image and looks for  a  jpeg structure at blocks starting at 512 bytes boundaries.

Salvaged   jpeg   pictures   are  stored  by  default  under  the  name imageXXXXX.jpg where XXXXX is a five digit number starting at zero.  If there  are more than 100,000 recovered pictures, recoverjpeg will start using six figures numbers and more as soon as needed, but  the  100,000 first  ones will use a five figures number. Options -f and -i can over‐ride this behavior.

Open the terminal and type following command to install recoverjpeg: sudo apt-get install recoverjpeg

Using recoverjpeg:
Open up the terminal and move to direcotory where you want to store the recovered jpef file and give the following command: sudo recoverjpeg /dev/sda1

Check recoverjpeg man pages to know more options using command: man recoverjpeg

Recoverjpeg does not include a complete jpeg parser. You  may  need  to use  sort-pictures afterwards to identify bogus pictures. Some pictures may be corrupted but have a correct structure; in this case, the  image may be garbled. There is no automated way to detect those pictures with a 100% success rate.


- How to set Password Length in Ubuntu Linux

A strong password policy is one of the most important aspects of your security posture. Many successful security breaches involve simple brute force and dictionary attacks against weak passwords. If you intend to offer any form of remote access involving your local password system, make sure you adequately address minimum password complexity requirements, maximum password lifetimes, and frequent audits of your authentication systems.

Setting Password Length:
By default, Ubuntu requires a minimum password length of 4 characters, these values are controlled in the file /etc/pam.d/common-password, which is outlined below, look for the line having "pam_unix.so" mentioned ...

password   [success=1 default=ignore]   pam_unix.so nullok obscure min=4 max=8 sha512
If you would like to adjust the minimum length to 6 characters, change the appropriate variable to min=6. The modification is outlined below.
password   [success=1 default=ignore]   pam_unix.so nullok obscure min=6 max=8 sha512


- Recover deleted files from NTFS filesystem from Ubuntu Linux - Ntfsundelete

If you have accidentally deleted files from your hard drive, don't panic! You can easily recover deleted files whether you are using a Windows PC (NTFS) or Linux OS. You can undelete files with almost guaranteed success. The most important thing is to act as soon as you realize that the files are lost.

When a file is deleted from your computer it is not really deleted. It is simply removed from the directory of files in the folder. Even though you can no longer see the file in the folder, its contents still exist 100% intact at this point.

If you're using Windows and you deleted the file using Windows Explorer, the file will have been moved to the Recycle Bin, as long as a file remains there it can easily be restored in its entirety, with no problem at all. So the first thing to do when you want to recover a deleted file is look in the Recycle Bin. If it's there, use the Restore option which will move it back to its original location.

If you emptied the bin, used Shift Delete to get rid of the file, deleted it from within an application or used some other method of removing it that bypassed the bin, then it is still almost certainly recoverable. When you empty the Recycle Bin or delete a file using another method, the file is still not really deleted. The file no longer exists as far as the operating system is concerned and the space it occupied becomes available for re-use by other files. But the disk space does not get re-used straight away so the data that the deleted file contained will stay on your hard drive for some time to come.

At this point of time you can use Linux OS to recover the deleted file from the windows OS running under NTFS partition using tool call - Ntfsundelete

Open up the terminal and type following command: sudo apt-get install ntfsprogs

The ntfsprogs package contains userspace tools: mkntfs, ntfscat, ntfsclone, ntfscluster, ntfscp, ntfsfix, ntfsinfo, ntfslabel, ntfsls, ntfsresize, ntfsundelete, etc and a shared NTFS library.

Using Ntfsundelete:
Figure out which drive  (NTFS) you want to undelete the files from. Open a terminal window and enter the following command in it: sudo fdisk -l this will give you the list of partition present in your drive

Now that you know the name Ubuntu has assigned to your hard drive, we’ll scan it to see what files we can uncover, In the terminal window, type: sudo ntfsundelete /dev/sda1
(replace the /dev/sda1 to your actual drive)

The names of files that can recovered show up in the far right column. The percentage in the third column tells us how much of that file can be recovered.

To quickly recover the PNGs, we will use the * wildcard to recover all of the files that end with .png.
Open up the terminal window, enter: sudo ntfsundelete /dev/sda1 –u –m *.png


- Detect Directory Traversal Vulnerabilities on HTTP / FTP Servers - DotDotPwn


Sometimes, developer's  just create some "generic" filters in order to prevent security issues, like the ones related to web technolgies such as XSS, SQLi or Directory traversals, but not all the times they take care about the obscure strings that an attacker can use to bypass many those weakest filters. With the use of DotDotPwn tool, we can confirm if a Directory traversal attack can be performed -even- if an HTTP/FTP server has already implemented any kind of filter against this attack and knowing *ALL* the available attack strings, developers can strength their web application/client-server filters.

DotDotPwn is a simple PERL tool which detects several Directory Traversal Vulnerabilities on HTTP/FTP Servers. This AttackDB version currently has 871 traversal payloads.

DotDotPwn Features:
 * Detects Directory traversal vulnerabilities on remote HTTP/FTP server systems.
 * DotDotPwn checks the presence of boot.ini on the vulnerable systems through Directory traversal vulnerabilities, so it is assumed that the tested systems are Windows based HTTP/FTP servers.
 * Currently, the traversal database holds 871 attack payloads. Use the -update flag to perform an online fresh update.

DotDotPwn requirements:
* Perl with support of HTTP::Lite and Net::FTP modules (these can be easily downloaded from the CPAN site - http://search.cpan.org/)

Using DotDotPwn:
Untar the package using command: tar -zxvf ddpwn.tar.gz
type the following command to run the directory traversal vulnerabilities test against web server:
perl ddpwn.pl -hhtp

Read more about DotDotPwn - here


- Installing Oracle VM VirtualBox on Ubuntu

VirtualBox is a cross-platform virtualization application.

What does that mean? For one thing, VirtualBox installs on your existing Intel or AMD-based computers, whether they are running Windows, Mac, Linux or Solaris operating systems. Secondly, VirtualBox extends the capabilities of your existing computer so that VirtualBox can run multiple operating systems (inside multiple virtual machines) at the same time. So, for example, you can run Windows and Linux on your Mac, run Windows Server 2008 on your Linux server, run Linux on your Windows PC, and so on, all alongside your existing applications. You can install and run as many virtual machines as you like -- the only practical limits are disk space and memory.

Features of "Oracle VirtualBox 3.2.0":
 * Avirtual SAS controller, emulating the LsiLogic SAS controller.
 * Dynamic memory ‘ballooning,’ enabling 64-bit hosts to adjust the amount of memory dedicated to a VM on the fly.
 * Guest Automation API.
 * Large Page support for increased performance.
 * Limited, experimental support for Mac OS X guests.
 * Multi-monitor support in Windows guests.
 * Page Fusion, a new feature that de-duplicates RAM used by similar VMs.
 * RDP video acceleration.
 * Snapshots can now be deleted while the VM is running.
 * Support for desktop and server versions of Ubuntu “Lucid Lynx” 10.04 LTS.
 * Support for Oracle Enterprise Linux 5.5.
 * Support for the Unrestricted Guest Execution feature in Intel Core i5, Core i7 and Xeon 5600 Series processors.
 * USB tablet/keyboard emulation.
 * vCPU hot-plugging for Linux and some Windows guests.

Installing VirtualBox:
To install VirtualBox, you need to add the non free repository, add one of the following lines according to your distribution to your /etc/apt/sources.list:
deb http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/debian lucid non-free
deb http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/debian karmic non-free
deb http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/debian jaunty non-free
deb http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/debian intrepid non-free
deb http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/debian hardy non-free
deb http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/debian squeeze non-free
deb http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/debian lenny non-free
deb http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/debian etch non-free
Add the verification key, type this command :
wget -q http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/debian/oracle_vbox.asc -O- | sudo apt-key add -

To install VirtualBox, do
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install virtualbox-3.2

This command will install the latest stable version of VirtualBox3.2.

Note: Ubuntu users might want to install the dkms package to ensure that the VirtualBox host kernel modules (vboxdrv, vboxnetflt and vboxnetadp) are properly updated if the linux kernel version changes during the next apt-get upgrade. The dkms package can be installed through the Synaptic Package manager or through the following command: sudo apt-get install dkms


- Ultimate Music Player For Linux - DeaDBeeF

DeaDBeeF (as in 0xDEADBEEF) is an audio player for GNU/Linux systems with X11 (though now it also runs in plain console without X, in FreeBSD, and in OpenSolaris).

DeaDBeeF features:
 * mp3, ogg vorbis, flac, ape, wv, wav, m4a, mpc, tta, cd audio (and many more)
 * sid, nsf and lots of other popular chiptune formats
 * ID3v1, ID3v2.2, ID3v2.3, ID3v2.4, APEv2, xing/info tags support
 * character set detection for non-unicode id3 tags – supports cp1251 and iso8859-1
 * unicode tags are fully supported as well (both utf8 and ucs2)
 * cuesheet (.cue files) support, with charset detection (utf8/cp1251/iso8859-1)
 * tracker modules like mod, s3m, it, xm, etc
 * HVSC song length database support for sid
 * gtk2 interface with efficient custom widgets
 * no GNOME or KDE dependencies
 * minimize to tray, with scrollwheel volume control
 * drag and drop, both inside of playlist, and from filemanagers and such
 * control playback from command line
 * global hotkeys
 * multiple playlists
 * album artwork display
 * 18-band graphical equalizer
 * metadata editor
 * user-customizable groups in playlists
 * user-customizable columns with flexible title formatting
 * radio and podcast support for ogg vorbis, mp3 and aac streams
 * gapless playback
 * plugin support; bundled with lots of plugins, such as global hotkeys and last.fm scrobbler; sdk is included
 * duration calculation is as precise as possible for vbr mp3 files (with and without xing/info tags)
 * was tested and works on x86, x86_64 and ppc64 architectures. should work on most modern platforms

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- Top Things to do after installing Ubuntu

So you have just installed ubuntu and want to know what's next, so open up the terminal (Applications > Accessories > Terminal) and get started...

Install the essential compilation software
Even if you are not interested in developing, you may need these packages in order to install applications by compiling source code.
sudo apt-get build-essential
Add the Medibuntu repositories which will add support for all codecs dvd and audio / video
sudo wget - output-document = /etc/apt/sources.list.d/medibuntu.list http://www.medibuntu.org/sources.list.d/ $ (lsb_release-cs).list
sudo apt-get -quiet update
sudo apt-get --yes --quiet --allow-unauthenticated install medibuntu-keyring
sudo apt-get -quiet update
Install support for playing encrypted DVD:
sudo aptitude install libdvdcss2
Install support for adding multimedia codecs:
In Ubuntu 32 bits: sudo apt-get install w32codecs
In Ubuntu 64 bits: sudo apt-get install w64codecs
Other codecs:  sudo apt-get install non-free-codecs

Install VLC Media Player:
It is a multimedia player that plays almost any format of audio and video.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa: n-muench/vlc
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install vlc vlc-plugin-esd mozilla-plugin-vlc
Music management and playback application for GNOME
sudo add-apt-repository ppa: banshee-team/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install banshee
sudo apt-get install banshee-extension-ubuntuonemusicstore
MPlayer is one of the most popular media player available on linux , it supports playing all the major audio/video file formats
sudo apt-get install mplayer
Moovida Media center:
Moovida is much more than a simple media player... it is a cutting edge media center bringing the best of the internet to your TV screen
sudo apt-get install moovida
XBMC is an award-winning free and open source (GPL) software media player and entertainment hub for digital media. XBMC is available for Linux, OSX, Windows, and the original Xbox.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:team-xbmc
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install xbmc
Flash plugin for 64 bit
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:sevenmachines/flash
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install flashplugin64-installer
Install support for Java application
sudo aptitude install sun-java6-fonts sun-java6-jre sun-java6-plugin
Bisigi Themes
These themes can be installed by adding besigi project repository, Open terminal and copy the following commands:
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:bisigi/dev
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install bisigi-themes
Screenlets are small owner-drawn applications (written in Python) that can be described as "the virtual representation of things lying/standing around on your desk". Sticky notes, clocks, rulers, ... the possibilities are endless.
sudo apt-get install screenlets
Ubuntu Tweak:
Ubuntu Tweak is a must have application for Ubuntu and LinuxMint, it is an application to config Ubuntu easier for everyone. It provides many useful desktop and system options that the default desktop environment doesn't provide.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:tualatrix/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-tweak
p7zip is the Unix port of 7-Zip, a file archiver that archives with very high compression ratios.
sudo apt-get install p7zip-full
Speed up the application launch
Preload is considered to be read-ahead daemon application as it analyzes the applications which user runs, and on the basis of this analysis it predicts which applications user can run next time and launches these applications in RAM.
sudo apt-get install preload
Now to start preload run the following command in terminal: sudo /etc/init.d/preload start

Install Ailurus
Ailurus is an application designed for making Linux easier to use. You can use it to install software and change system settings.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ailurus
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install ailurus
Install Wine
Wine is a tool that allows us to run Windows programs on GNU / Linux.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ubuntu-wine/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install wine
PlayOnLinux is a piece of sofware which allows you to easily install and use numerous games and softwares designed to run with Microsoft®'s Windows®.
sudo apt-get install playonlinux
A few plugins for compiz:
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:compiz/ppa
sudo apt-get install compiz-fusion-extra-plugins
Since Ubuntu 10.04 (Lucid Lynx), Skype is part of the Canonical partner repository.
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install skype
Pidgin is a GTK2-based instant messenger application. It supports multiple protocols via modules, including AIM, ICQ, Yahoo!, MSN, Jabber, IRC, Napster, Gadu-Gadu and Zephyr.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:pidgin-developers/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install pidgin
Emesene is a nice and simple MSN Messenger client. It tries to be similar to the official client, but with a simpler interface and a nicer look.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:bjfs/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install emesene
Install Liferea
Liferea (Linux Feed Reader) is an aggregator for online news feeds.
sudo aptitude install liferea
Twitter Clients
In ubuntu is installed by default we Gwibber, but we can install other as:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:effie-jayx/turpial
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get and install turpial
Install JDownloader
jdownloader is a great tool to download file from share websites like rapidshare.com and many more
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:jd-team/jdownloader
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install jdownloader
Downloader For X:
Downloader for X is a nice download manager that allows downloading files from Internet , pausing them and downloading them later . It also supports splitting file into number of segments so that files could be downloaded quickly.
sudo apt-get install d4x
The Deluge application was designed to be a full-featured BitTorrent client. Deluge uses libtorrent in it's backend and PyGTK for it's user interface,  and is  currently usable on POSIX-compliant operating systems.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:deluge-team/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install deluge
Vuze is a bitorrent client that is used to download and share files using the p2p network
sudo apt-get install vuze
Filezilla is the best ftp client for Linux
sudo apt-get install filezilla
Install Chromium
I prefer firefox before chromium but is very useful to have another browser installed.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa: chromium-daily/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install-and chromium-chromium-browser-ffmpeg-nonfree codecs
Install Shutter
It is a tool that allows you to capture screen, edit and upload them to servers such as imageshack.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:shutter/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install shutter
Install burg
BURG stands for Brand-new Universal loadeR from GRUB. It's based on GRUB, and add features like new object format and configurable menu system.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:bean123ch/burg
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install burg-pc burg burg-themes burg-emu
Install OpenShot
It is one of the best video editors for Linux, it is easy to use and has a large number of effects and transitions.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:jonoomph/openshot-edge
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install openshot
Backup tool: Deja Dup:
Deja Dup is a simple backup tool. It hides the complexity of doing backups the 'right way' (encrypted, off-site, and regular) and uses duplicity as the back-end.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:deja-dup-team/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install deja-dup 


- Multimedia (MP3, MPEG-4, AVI, DiVX, etc.) support in Ubuntu 10.10 (Maverick Meerkat )

Why doesn’t Ubuntu support MP3 ‘out of the box’?

Ubuntu cannot include support for MP3 or DVD video playback or recording. MP3 formats are patented, and the patent holders have not provided the necessary licenses. Ubuntu also excludes other multimedia software due to patent, copyright, or license restrictions, such as Adobe Flash Player and RealNetworks RealPlayer.

That doesn’t mean you can’t play .mp3 files in Ubuntu , it just takes a bit of work (not much).

Follow these instructions to get mp3 and other multimedia support on your Ubuntu 10.10.

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- How to restore Grub 2 after reinstalling Windows

GRUB 2 introduces many new changes. GRUB 2 has better portability and modularity, supports non-ASCII characters, dynamic loading of modules, real memory management, and more and is totally different from its predecessor, menu.lst doesnt even exist it is replaced by grub.cfg which have little resemblance with menu.lst

There are times when you inadvertently overwrite your Master Boot Record. The end result being that you are unable to boot into Linux. This is especially true when you are dual booting between windows and Linux OSes or installing/upgrading your windows OS

This is what you do to restore the GRUB2 boot loader when faced with the above problem. First you need a Linux distribution CD, Ubuntu Jaunty, Karmic Live CD.

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- How to use eCryptfs (Cryptographic Filesystem) in Ubuntu Linux

eCryptfs is a kernel-native stacked cryptographic filesystem for Linux. Stacked filesystems layer on top of existing mounted filesystems that are referred to as lower filesystems. eCryptfs is a stacked filesystem that encrypts and decrypts the files as they are written to or read from the lower filesystem.

eCryptfs encrypts and decrypts individual data extents in each file using a unique randomly generated File Encryption Key (FEK). The FEK is encrypted with the File Encryption Key Encryption Key (FEKEK), and the resulting Encrypted File Encryption Key (EFEK) is stored in the header of each lower file.

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